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政策最新キーワード

地域力再生(京都府の挑戦)

今川 晃 投稿者 今川 晃 : 2008年1月21日

 「私たちは本当に豊かになったのか?」と問い直してみましょう。生活は便利になったけど、地球規模の環境問題は言うまでも無く、私たちが住んでいる地域社会にも児童虐待など多様な問題が発生し、私たちは決して「豊になった」とは言えないのではないでしょうか。
 そこで京都府では、「府民による府民自治の新しい姿」を目ざして、地域社会の様々な問題解決と府民が活き活きと豊かさを享受できる「新しいガバナンス」の構築に向けて取り組もうとしているのです。この内容詳細については、次のURLでご覧下さい。
http://www.pref.kyoto.jp/chiikiryoku/resources/1197852684480.pdf
 さて、ここにはいくつかの乗り越えなければならない課題があります。
 ひとつだけ例示しておきましょう。地域団体の主体的な「地域力再生活動」に京都府が交付金を支給したとしても、地域力再生への発展に結びつかなければ交付金は一過性の「バラマキ」で終わってしまうわけです。そうさせないために、団体間のネットワークづくり、中間支援団体、団体間相互の評価のしくみなどを機能させていく必要があります。これには大変な人的エネルギーを必要としますが、豊な社会を迎えるためには避けられないのです。交付金が一過性で終わらないために、どんなことが必要であるのか、いろいろと考えてみたいですね。

Metaphors in Politics

Ofer Feldman 投稿者 Ofer Feldman : 2008年1月9日

- Political Metaphors -

Metaphors are an essential component of the communication process between political leaders, government officials, political activists, policy analysts, and news reporters and the general public because they translate complex political events and situations into more common terms, such as nature, sports, health, or work, that are easier for non-politicians to comprehend. As such, metaphors play a significant role in providing information as well as perspectives through which the public perceive political activity and issues, and in maintaining and shifting political meanings and behavior.

The modern Oxford English Dictionary defines metaphor as a “word or phrase used in an imaginative way to describe something else, in order to show that the two things have the same qualities and to make the description more powerful.” Metaphors allow people to talk and think about one area of experience (the “topic,” “tenor” or
“target domain”) in terms of another (the “vehicle” or
“source domain”). Metaphors present abstract, complex or unfamiliar target domains in terms of ideas or structures from source domains taken from more concrete, clear and familiar spheres of life. Metaphor is not simply a device that is typical of poetic or highly rhetorical language, but is a pervasive and essential feature of all types of language. Besides embellishing descriptions of well-understood realities for rhetorical purposes, metaphors also contribute to the very construction and understanding of social reality. This notion has special significance in politics, where structuring one domain in terms of another can influence the way large numbers of people perceive sensitive and controversial aspects of their social environment.

The effects of metaphors used in political rhetoric have been widely discussed. Metaphors can stir emotions, justify action, or bridge the gap between logical (rational) and emotional (irrational) forms of persuasion. When applied consistently and systematically in a particular political context, metaphors can be powerful tools for changing people’s attitudes, diverting attention, strengthening legitimacy, creating positive images of political parties and their leaders, justifying leaders’ activities, and for establishing relationships between leaders and the general public.